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The Romanian Constitution reserves a seat in the Chamber of Deputies for the party and cultural association of each ethnic minority in Romania (with the limitation that each national minority is to be represented by one organization only). At the 2004 legislative elections, the following parties and associations were granted a seat in the Chamber of Deputies.

  • Association of Italians of Romania (Asociaţia Italienilor din România)
  • Bulgarian Union of the Banat – Romania (Uniunea Bulgară din Banat – România)
  • Cultural Union of Rusyns of Romania (Uniunea Culturală a Rutenilor din România)
  • Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (Forumul Democrat al Germanilor din România)
  • Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania (Uniunea Democratică a Slovacilor şi Cehilor din România)
  • Democratic Union of Turco-Islamic Tatars of Romania (Uniunea Democrată a Tătarilor Turco-Musulmani din România)
  • Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania (Federaţia Comunităţilor Evreieşti din România)
  • Greek Union of Romania (Uniunea Elenă din România)
  • League of Albanians of Romania (Liga Albanezilor din România)
  • Lipovan Russian Community of Romania (Comunitatea Ruşilor Lipoveni din România)
  • Party of the Roma (Partida Romilor)
  • Turkish Democratic Union of Romania (Uniunea Democrată Turcă din România)
  • Union of Armenians of Romania (Uniunea Armenilor din România)
  • Union of Croatians of Romania (Uniunea Croaţilor din România)
  • Union of Poles of Romania Dom Polski (Uniunea Polonezilor din România 'Dom Polski')
  • Union of Serbs of Romania (Uniunea Sârbilor din România)
  • Union of Slavonic Macedonians of Romania (Asociaţia Macedonenilor Slavi din România)
  • Union of Ukrainians of Romania (Uniunea Ucrainienilor din România)

In addition to these, the ethnically-based Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség, RMDSZ; Romanian: Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România, UDMR) has played a significant role in the country's politics, contesting elections in essentially the same manner as non-ethnic parties.